Japanese Garbage Classification Has Become A Conscious Act Of The People
The Regulations on the Administration of Domestic Waste in Shanghai was officially implemented on July 1. The reason why this regulation is striking is its iconic significance: after more than 20 years of advocacy work, Shanghai took the lead in incorporating waste into the rule of law framework. In fact, garbage classification is not a strange word for ordinary Chinese people. In June 2000, 8 cities started the pilot of garbage collection and collection. However, the current effect of garbage sorting is still not satisfactory.
Today we launched an article written by the reporters in Japan, Russia, and Sri Lanka. Perhaps we can get some lessons from it.
Japan began to implement waste sorting and recycling in the 1970s. After decades of efforts, the strictness of the classification and recycling of waste in Japan has reached its limit. The success of Japanese waste sorting, in addition to the detailed and detailed laws and regulations and the various guidebook specifications, more importantly, the distribution of waste has become the conscious behavior of the people, and it is part of everyone's daily life as eating and sleeping.
Throwing garbage is classified and time-sharing
Tossing garbage in Japan can definitely be regarded as a technical activity. For example, a beverage bottle should be poured out and rinsed, then the bottle cap should be unscrewed separately, and then the label can be removed. Garbage disposal.
Because the garbage disposal method is cumbersome, the garbage classification manuals formulated by various local governments in Japan are dozens of hundreds of pages, and the articles are as many as several hundred. If you don't study them carefully, the garbage can't be taken out of the way. If you throw the wrong garbage, it will be returned. If you are punished or considered by the neighbors to be unethical, the consequences will be very serious.
If you want to become a garbage dumper, in addition to studying the garbage classification manual of the municipality, you must keep a garbage sorting and recycling schedule in the vicinity of your home. This table usually includes the classification and recycling date of various garbage. The back side will explain the various disposal methods. For example, plastic bottles should be packed in transparent plastic bags, and diapers should be cleaned of dirt. Fluorescent lamps should be placed in a box or bag when replaced and marked with fluorescent lights.
In the classification of waste, although the classification methods vary from place to place in Japan, they can be broadly classified into combustible garbage, non-burnable garbage, resource waste, large-sized garbage and hazardous waste. Specific small items.
Combustible garbage generally includes shredded paper, kitchen waste, rubber products, leather products, weeds, etc., but does not include books, newspapers, plastics, etc.; non-burnable garbage includes tableware, glass products, small household appliances, etc.; resources mainly include beverage bottles , glass bottles, beverage cans, old newspapers, magazines, paper boxes and clean plastics; large garbage includes large appliances such as TVs, air conditioners, tables and chairs, and other old furniture; hazardous waste includes batteries, mercury thermometers, expired drugs, etc. In the processing, not only must you make an appointment online in advance, but also affix a prescribed amount of garbage disposal vouchers on the garbage, and collect it at regular intervals.
In the time of throwing garbage, the number and time of each month are clearly defined. Take the reporter's place of residence as an example. The recovery of combustible garbage is 8 times a month, every Wednesday and Thursday; non-burnable garbage is 2 times a month, the first and third week of each month, Thursday; resource garbage is 4 per month. Times, every Wednesday. If you can't throw garbage by time, you can only wait until the next time.
In addition, the way to throw garbage is different for apartment-style houses and small villa-style houses in Japan. Where small villa-style individual houses gather, it is necessary to throw the garbage to the prescribed delivery point according to the specified date and time, and it is not allowed to throw garbage at random within the specified time; the apartment-style houses generally have special garbage rooms, and the households can classify the garbage. After being placed in the garbage room, the property is responsible for moving to the designated collection point on the designated date.
Forming good habits from childhood
In the 1960s and 1970s, Japan achieved rapid economic growth. At one time, it faced environmental pollution and garbage siege problems, and there were very famous water hyacinths and pains, which caused people to pay attention to environmental issues. In response to environmental pollution, the Japanese government enacted the Law on Waste Disposal and Cleaning in 1970, and later in 1995 the Container Packaging Recycling Act. In 1998, the Household Appliances Recycling Act was enacted. In the year, the Law on the Promotion of Recycling of Food Recycling Resources was formulated, and the legal system for waste sorting and recycling was gradually improved.
On the roads in Japan, you can often see the sign "Prohibition of illegal dumping" (prohibition of illegal dumping of garbage). Many people may not agree that it is not a big mistake to throw a garbage, but according to the law on waste disposal and cleaning. ", may be sentenced to a fine of 10 million yen or less and a term of imprisonment of not more than 5 years. Because of strict legal regulations, the Japanese people will throw garbage in strict accordance with the requirements.
In addition to relying on laws to regulate the garbage classification of the people, how to improve the public's awareness of environmental protection, and make the classification of garbage become a voluntary habit of everyone is more important. To this end, families, governments, schools, and garbage collection agencies have started from kindergarten children, so that everyone can develop the habit of sorting garbage from an early age.
The reporter used to see a garbage cleaning vehicle in the park near the residence, where many children often play, to carry out garbage collection and publicity activities. At the event site, children can not only visit the garbage collection vehicle operation console and working principle, but also see a bag of garbage being “swallowed” into the garbage collection vehicle. The staff will also let the children know the different types of garbage by making games and answering questions. Through fun and interesting forms, children can establish environmental awareness and master the knowledge of garbage classification.
In addition, from kindergarten to high school, the school regularly organizes students to visit garbage disposal plants and other activities to educate children about environmental protection and garbage collection. Because of the education received from childhood, many kindergarten children can do it themselves. After washing the milk carton, cut it into squares with scissors, then dry it and then treat it as a kind of garbage.
According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government's 2017 Annual Report on Cleaning, the 23 districts in Tokyo produced a total of 2,765,600 tons of garbage (including factory waste, etc.), which was calculated on the basis of 9384,987 residents in the 23 districts on October 1, that year. 807 kg. So how do you deal with the large amount of garbage that is sorted and recycled?
Usually, combustible garbage will be transported to the cleaning factory (waste incineration plant) for incineration; non-burnable garbage will be transported to the non-burnable garbage disposal center, after the crushing and resource recovery, and finally landfill treatment; large garbage will be transported. After being treated in a large-scale garbage crushing treatment field, after combustible non-combustible classification, it is combustible and burned after incineration, non-combustible crushing, resource recovery and finally landfill.
Taking combustible garbage as an example, all combustible garbage in the 23rd district of Tokyo will be concentrated in 19 cleaning factories in the area for incineration. The entire process requires strict measures to avoid the generation of bacteria, pests and odors. The volume of waste generated after waste incineration will be reduced to one-twentieth of the original, in which ash will be used as cement raw material, and the other part will be made into artificial sand.
The 19 cleaning facilities in the 23rd district of Tokyo have power generation functions. Related equipment can convert the heat generated by incineration waste into steam power generation. The electricity produced will be sold to the power company in addition to the factory, and will be provided to enterprises and residents around the factory. In addition, the high-temperature water generated during the incineration of garbage (liquid water of 100 ° C or higher formed after pressurization) is sold to heating companies for heating, or to swimming pools, tropical botanical gardens, etc. According to statistics, the revenue generated by the 19 factories in the 23rd district of Tokyo from the sale of electricity or heat in 2017 is about 10.5 billion yen.
Less than 1 km from the famous Shibuya station area in Tokyo, there is a waste incineration plant, the Shibuya cleaning factory, where careful people can easily find the location of the factory from the towering chimney. Despite the large number of commercial facilities around the city and the intensive traffic flow, due to strict hygiene management and environmental protection measures, there is almost no smell from the side of the garbage that has not been piled up or discharged.