International Labor Day
International Labor Day or May Day, is the Labor Day of most countries in the world.
The festival originated from the strike of workers in Chicago, USA. To commemorate this great workers' movement, the Second International Inaugural Assembly in 1889 announced that May 1st of each year would be designated as International Labor Day.
The Administrative Office of the Central People's Government of China decided in December 1949 to define May 1 as Labor Day. After 1989, the State Council basically commended a national model worker and advanced workers every five years, honouring about 3,000 people each time.
At the end of the eighteenth century, many countries, such as the United States and Europe, gradually developed from capitalism to imperialism. In order to stimulate the rapid development of the economy, more surplus value was extracted to maintain this fast-moving capitalist machine.
The family continues to take measures to increase labor time and labor intensity to cruelly exploit workers.
In the United States, workers work 14 to 16 hours a day, and some even up to 18 hours, but wages are low. The supervisor of a shoe factory in Massachusetts once said: "Let a 18-year-old man with a strong and healthy body work next to any machine here, I can make his hair gray at the age of 22!" Heavy class oppression provoked the great anger of the proletarians. They know that to survive the conditions of survival, they must only unite and fight the capitalists through the strike movement. The strike slogan proposed by the workers is to require an eight-hour work system.
In 1877, the first national strike in American history began. The working class went to the streets to demonstrate and improve the conditions of labor and living, and demanded a reduction in working hours and an eight-hour working system. Soon after the strike, the team has expanded and the number of union members has soared. Workers from all over the world have also participated in the strike.
Under the strong pressure of the workers' movement, the US Congress was forced to enact an eight-hour work-making law. However, the capitalists of the anti-drugs simply ignored them. This law is nothing but a piece of paper. The workers are still living in dire straits and suffering from the capitalists. The unbearable workers decided to push this struggle for the right to survival to a new climax and prepare for a larger strike.
Europe is still demonstrating "May 1" in demonstrations In the UK and Germany, the authorities are worried that there will be an anarchist in the demonstrations. In Berlin, Germany, police and anarchists clashed in the middle of the night and many people were arrested. However, thousands of union activists marched peacefully in the city. In France and Austria, people who oppose pension reform also took to the streets to participate in the parade. It can be seen from the news screen of the Turkish national television station. The police used the baton to fight the demonstrators and pulled one of them to pull him away.
Italy: don't celebrate without holidays
European countries such as Britain and France have identified “May 1st” as Labor Day, many countries have a day off, and others have placed public holidays on the first Monday in May according to the situation. However, unlike most countries in the world, although Italy recognizes the “May 1st” International Labor Day and the government also respects labor, it does not usually hold special celebrations or national “May 1st” holidays. .
Peru: The state stipulates that May 1 is the national labor day, and the national holiday is one day.
United States: The birthplace of Labor Day, but the "May 1st" Labor Day originated in the United States. American Assets in the 1880s
In order to carry out capital accumulation, the working class is cruelly exploited and crushed. They use various means to force workers to work for 12 to 16 hours or more per day. The majority of American workers gradually realize that in order to protect their rights, they must fight.
Beginning in 1884, the advanced American workers' organization passed a resolution to fight for "eight hours of work a day" and put forward slogans such as "8 hours of work; 8 hours of rest; 8 hours of entertainment! Workers create all wealth!"
On May 1, 1886, workers in Chicago, USA, held a general strike. On that day, with Chicago as the center, about 350,000 workers across the United States participated in strikes and marches, demanding improvements in working conditions and an eight-hour work system. This struggle has shaken the entire United States. The powerful forces of the working class united in the battle forced the capitalists to make concessions, and the great strike of American workers won.
In July 1889, the Second International, led by Engels, held a congress in Paris. In order to commemorate the "May 1st" strike of American workers, the meeting passed a resolution to make May 1 of each year an International Labor Day. Since then, workers' groups around the world have held grand celebrations on this day, and many countries have a day off.
However, in particular, the US government later set the Labor Day on its own, the first Monday of September is Labor Day, so the American Labor Day is not in May, but in September.
On Labor Day in September, Americans can take a day off. People from all over the United States usually hold various celebrations such as parades and gatherings to show respect for labor. In some states, people have to hold picnics after the parade, eating, drinking, singing and dancing. At night, there are fireworks in some places. Russia: There are many parades, gatherings and entertainments. Since the establishment of Labor Day in the world, Russia has always attached importance to this special festival. On the day of "May 1st", Russia has a national holiday and held various celebrations and mass demonstrations.
In the past, the above activities were mainly organized by the government, and the parade included representatives of various enterprises and institutions. Now, in addition to the government-organized celebrations, various political and non-governmental organizations and labor groups will spontaneously hold various celebrations on this day. This opportunity can be used to fully explain their respective political views and expand the organization. influences. Generally speaking, the team of the “May 1st” parade must first pass through the main streets and squares of the city, and finally hold large-scale gatherings and celebrations in the old or wide central square. At the same time, various clubs across Russia will also hold rich and colorful entertainment activities, and people's holiday mood is very high.
Japan: Labor Day “Golden Week” Japan is a country with more festivals. There are many festivals around May 1st, such as the April 29th Arbor Day, the May 3rd Constitution Day, the 4th National Holiday, 5 On Children's Day, these holidays are connected. Generally, Japanese people have at least one week of rest, and the longest is even 11 days.
For the working class, the meaning of this long vacation is really unusual. Therefore, in Japan, the special celebration of Labor Day was gradually replaced by the “May 1 Golden Week”. And since April 29, Japan has entered the "Golden Week."
Many restaurants, hot springs and other entertainment facilities throughout Japan have launched various advertisements to attract tourists before the May 1st. The price of ordinary hotels has more than doubled.
Thailand: Labor regulations were first enacted in 1932, and the May 1st of each year was identified as the National Labor Day, which rewarded hard-working workers. On this day, Thailand has a unified national holiday, and there will be related celebrations in the capital and some big cities, but the scale is generally not too large.
Egypt: Known as Labor Day on May 1, it is considered a paid holiday. Traditionally, the Egyptian President presided over the official May Festival celebrations in Cairo; however, due to the president’s case, according to the 2011 revolution, and the allegations of corruption faced by state-controlled heads, the National Trade Union Center (Egyptian Trade Union Confederation) The celebration of 2011 was organized by the Independent Trade Union (under the banner of Unity, Egypt as an independent trade union federation), the first revolution since 1952.
South Africa: In South Africa, a public holiday on May 1 of each year since 1994.