Galileo Satellite Navigation System
The Galileo satellite navigation system is a global satellite navigation and positioning system developed and established by the European Union. The plan was announced by the European Commission in February 1999. The European Commission and ESA are jointly responsible. The system consists of 30 satellites with an orbital height of 23,616 km, including 27 working stars and 3 backup stars. The satellite orbit has a height of about 24,000 kilometers and is located in three orbital planes with an inclination of 56 degrees. As of December 2016, 18 working satellites have been launched, with early operational capability (EOC) and full operational capability (FOC) planned for 2019. All 30 satellites (adjusted to 24 working satellites and 6 backup satellites) are scheduled to be launched in 2020.
Reference News Network reported on July 16 De Media said that due to system errors, the entire satellite network of the European Galileo global satellite navigation system is no longer available.
According to the German news TV channel website reported on July 14, all 26 Galileo satellites are marked "downline" on the website of the European Global Navigation Satellite System Bureau, but the search and rescue service system is still valid and can be tracked. What is disturbing is the ground facilities, and experts are working hard to solve this problem.
According to the website of the German "Hai Ze Online" magazine, the global navigation satellite system reported the first wave of failure as early as 11th. By the 13th, the European Agency for Global Navigation Satellite Systems notified the system that it was completely out of order.
The European Union first announced the Galileo satellite navigation system plan in 1999, with the aim of breaking away from Europe's dependence on the US global positioning system and breaking its monopoly. The project will launch a total of 32 satellites with a total investment of 3.4 billion euros. Due to differences among member states, the plan has been postponed several times.
The 1999 report of the European Commission proposed two constellation options for the Galileo system:
The first is the 21+6 program, which uses 21 medium-high orbit satellites plus 6 geosynchronous orbit satellites. This solution can basically meet the needs of Europe, but it must be combined with the US GPS system and the local differential augmentation system.
The second is the 36+9 program, which uses 36 medium-high orbit satellites and 9 geosynchronous orbit satellites or only 36 medium-high orbit satellites. This solution can meet all the needs of Europe without relying on the GPS system. The ground portion of the system will consist of a real European monitoring system, an orbital measurement and control system, a time synchronization system and a system management center.
In order to reduce the investment of the whole system, neither of the above two schemes has been adopted. The final scheme is: the system consists of 30 satellites with an orbital height of 23,616 km, including 27 working stars and 3 backup stars. Each launch will send 5 or 6 satellites into orbit simultaneously.
Xinhuanet Paris, October 21st (Reporter comfort) Paris time on the 21st at 12:30 (Beijing time 18:30), the Russian "Alliance" carrier rocket carrying the first two satellites of the European Galileo global satellite navigation system, from The Kourou Space Launch Center in French Guiana was launched.
The Galileo system is a new generation of civilian global satellite navigation system led by the European Union, costing more than 3 billion euros. The system consists of two ground control centers and 30 satellites, of which 27 are working satellites and 3 are spare satellites. The satellite orbit has a height of about 24,000 kilometers and is located in three orbital planes with an inclination of 56 degrees.
After the launch, the European Space Agency plans to launch two more satellites next year and launch another 26 satellites in the next few years to complete the construction of the satellite navigation system. European Ariane will be responsible for the launch of all satellites.
At present, the navigation and positioning system used in the world is mainly the GPS system of the United States, which Europeans think is not safe. In order to establish a civil global satellite navigation system controlled by Europe, the Europeans decided to implement the Galileo plan. The construction plan of the Galileo system was first proposed in a report of the European Commission in 1999. After many arguments, it was officially launched in March 2002. The original goal of the system was built in 2008, but it was extended to 2011 due to technical issues. In early 2010, the European Commission announced once again that the Galileo system will be postponed until 2014.
Compared with the US GPS system, the Galileo system is more advanced and more reliable. Satellite signals provided by US GPS to other countries can only find objects that are about 10 meters long on the ground, while Galileo's satellites can find targets that are 1 meter long. A military expert vividly said that the GPS system can only find the street, while Galileo can find the home.
The Galileo plan is of key importance to the European Union. It will not only make people's lives more convenient, but will also bring considerable economic benefits to the EU's industry and commerce. More importantly, the EU will have its own global satellite navigation system, which will help break the monopoly of the US GPS navigation system, thereby gaining a favorable position in the global high-tech competition wave and creating conditions for the future construction of European independent defense.
As an EU-led project, Galileo did not exclude foreign participation. China, South Korea, Japan, Argentina, Australia, Russia and other countries are also participating in the program and providing financial and technical support. After the completion of the Galileo satellite navigation system, it will form the world's four satellite navigation systems together with the US GPS, the Russian "Glonas" and the China Beidou satellite navigation system to provide users with more efficient and accurate services.
On March 30, 2015, Europe launched two Galileo navigation satellites to counter GPS.